WWF Arctic Council Conservation Scorecard

Ecosystem - Based Management

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Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is an effective, coordinated and coherent way of managing ecosystems and their services in changing conditions.

Findings

Arctic states have been slow to implement Ecosystem-Based Management as developed and approved by the Arctic Council.

Recommendations

Arctic countries

Arctic Council

 

Detailed ratings

C Canada

  • Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs), and Risk Assessments
  • 3/3
  • Assessments of Combined Effects of Multiple Stressors
  • 1/2
  • Applying the Ecosystem Approach
  • 2/6
  • Cooperation in Advancing Implementation of EBM
  • 1/1
  • Total score
  • 7/12

All ratings for Canada See detailed scoring criteria

D Kingdom of Denmark

  • Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs), and Risk Assessments
  • 2/3
  • Assessments of Combined Effects of Multiple Stressors
  • 1/2
  • Applying the Ecosystem Approach
  • 0/6
  • Cooperation in Advancing Implementation of EBM
  • 0/1
  • Total score
  • 3/12

All ratings for Kingdom of Denmark See detailed scoring criteria

B Finland

  • Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs), and Risk Assessments
  • 3/3
  • Assessments of Combined Effects of Multiple Stressors
  • 0/2
  • Applying the Ecosystem Approach
  • N/A
  • Cooperation in Advancing Implementation of EBM
  • 1/1
  • Total score
  • 4/6

All ratings for Finland See detailed scoring criteria

D Iceland

  • Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs), and Risk Assessments
  • 2/3
  • Assessments of Combined Effects of Multiple Stressors
  • 0/2
  • Applying the Ecosystem Approach
  • 0/6
  • Cooperation in Advancing Implementation of EBM
  • 0/1
  • Total score
  • 2/12

All ratings for Iceland See detailed scoring criteria

B Norway

  • Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs), and Risk Assessments
  • 2/3
  • Assessments of Combined Effects of Multiple Stressors
  • 1/2
  • Applying the Ecosystem Approach
  • 4/6
  • Cooperation in Advancing Implementation of EBM
  • 1/1
  • Total score
  • 8/12

All ratings for Norway See detailed scoring criteria

D Russia

  • Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs), and Risk Assessments
  • 1/3
  • Assessments of Combined Effects of Multiple Stressors
  • 0/2
  • Applying the Ecosystem Approach
  • 0/6
  • Cooperation in Advancing Implementation of EBM
  • 1/1
  • Total score
  • 2/12

All ratings for Russia See detailed scoring criteria

C Sweden

  • Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs), and Risk Assessments
  • 2/3
  • Assessments of Combined Effects of Multiple Stressors
  • 0/2
  • Applying the Ecosystem Approach
  • N/A
  • Cooperation in Advancing Implementation of EBM
  • 1/1
  • Total score
  • 3/6

All ratings for Sweden See detailed scoring criteria

D United States

  • Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs), and Risk Assessments
  • 2/3
  • Assessments of Combined Effects of Multiple Stressors
  • 0/2
  • Applying the Ecosystem Approach
  • 0/6
  • Cooperation in Advancing Implementation of EBM
  • 1/1
  • Total score
  • 3/12

All ratings for United States See detailed scoring criteria

D Arctic Council

  • Completion of AC EBM Expert Group Report
  • 1/1
  • Developing an Arctic EBM goal
  • 0/2
  • Updating Observed Best Practices in Ecosystem-based Ocean Management in the Arctic
  • 0/1
  • Total Score
  • 1/4

All ratings for Arctic Council See detailed scoring criteria

How these indicators are scored

National

Indicator 1: Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs), and Risk Assessments

Criterion 1: State has regulations requiring environmental impact assessments to be completed prior to approval of new exploration and/or exploitation activities

Criterion 2: State has regulations requiring strategic environmental assessments to be completed prior to the approval of new exploration and/or exploitation activities

Criterion 3: State has regulations requiring risk assessments to be completed prior to the approval of new exploration and/or exploitation activities

Indicator 2: Assessments of Combined Effects of Multiple Stressor

Criterion 1: State studied and identified combined effects of multiple stressors on marine species and ecosystems

Criterion 2: State monitors on an ongoing basis the combined effects of multiple stressors on marine species and ecosystems

Indicator 3: Applying the Ecosystem Approach

Criterion 1: State completed the identification of marine geographical areas based on biogeographical criteria including identification of responsible agencies and jurisdictional aspects, and the legitimate stakeholders for each area

Criterion 2: State published descriptions of all their Arctic marine ecosystems

Criterion 3: State developed a holistic and comprehensive set of ecological objectives including management action for all their Large marine Ecosystems (LMEs)

Criterion 4: State released ecosystem status reports for all their respective LMEs

Criterion 5: State completed and recurrently updates the Arctic Ecosystem Services Inventory for all their LMEs

Criterion 6: State has policies that are integrated for all their respective LMEs including ecosystems straddling national boundaries

Indicator 4: Cooperation in Advancing Implementation of EBM

Criterion 1: State has at least one shared EBM initiative with neighboring state(s)

Arctic Council

Indicator 1: Completion of AC EBM Expert Group Report

Criterion 1: Arctic Council completed EBM report

Indicator 2: Developing an Arctic EBM goal

Criterion 1: Development of an overarching EBM goal in progress, including objectives supporting this goal

Criterion 2: Arctic Council EBM goal developed and endorsed, including objectives supporting this goal

Indicator 3: Updating Observed Best Practices in Ecosystem-based Ocean Management in the Arctic

Criterion 1: Arctic Council updated and adjusted “Observed Best Practices in Ecosystem-based Ocean Management in the Arctic” to be applicable to all environments, including marine, coastal and terrestrial.